التخلف الاجتماعي: مدخل إلى

10 thoughts on “التخلف الاجتماعي: مدخل إلى سيكولوجية الإنسان المقهور

  1. كتابي الصوتي كتابي الصوتي says:

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  2. Tasneemali Tasneemali says:

    A new favorite of mine I can’t articulate in words how much I gained from this book I think it should be taught in schools read by every adult at least twice It’s an insightful psychological study about societies and the individual in our Arab and Third world countries One that didn’t apply theories that were found in the west It’s a commendable effort to study the psyche mentality and society of our Arab world as its own entity The book introduced me to psychology and I have to say I’m intrigued and genuinely interested in the field now Each and every one of us will learn so much about themselves and the world around by studying psychology Managers who want to truly understand and communicate with their employees employees who want a better work environment and healthy dynamics with peers families who want to truly bond writers who want to grasp an understanding of the human psyche for hope of complex characters artists who want to be true to the human experience and the list goes on reallyThe writer Mustafa Hegazi is a Lebanese intellect He believes there’s these patterns of thinking that gradually change within time and progress First we knew fishing and grazing then planting and farming At that particular time slavery wasn’t an abomination or a human right issue because the HUMAN BEING was the source of energy and the key to work and getting the job done Then came the industrial era and we had a different source of energy the machine So slavery was frowned upon and workers had rights and work hours and salaries etc Then globalization and finally the age of wisdom as he calls it He says it started right after the Arabic spring and eventually we’re going to witness the disintegration of political parties and the birth of ideological groups with causes For example a group with a particular cause concerning the environment Who would seek funding and raise voices gather supporters find solutions and create results for the cause they care aboutI will try to sum up some ideas throughout the book In hopes of getting a better grasp of the book throughout the process and sharing something that enriched me with other peopleSo to be honest it’s a bit of a long summary rather than a reviewIn the fifties of the twentieth century there were writings and studies about the topic of backwardness and the state of falling behind Most of them focused on issues like education health etc and there wasn’t any mention of the individual himself They deemed us human beings as material subjects who will gradually embrace and follow full heartedly the change around A backward person by definition is the person who seeks the old ways and the surroundings he knows He thrives in his comfort zone and his mentality and psyches are prepared for that and only that This nature is a result of years and years of oppression that subconsciously condemns him to be psychologically defeated and oppressedThere are some theories and approaches to study backwardness The superficial approach like when we look at backwardness what we come with for example is poverty collapse in education system and so on So in light of that we categorize countries beginning with the worst of them ending with the best But such indications are not all insightful for example there are many rich countries that have money but they are not productive certainly not on a social and a cultural level The economic approach started with the mere focus on rudimentary production materials and tools and the insignificant and almost nonexistent manufacturing level Also the ignorance and lack of resourceful use of treasures and possessions Lack of labor specifically the skilled kind results in low productivity low income and the discouragement of employment because of the little profits Hence UNEMPLOYMENT The production that manages to turn out uite good find its way to few elites who monopolize or worse get it sold to foreign countries There’s the dependency on the west the corruption in market and of tradesmen and sellers We produce raw materials to export in exchange of consumer goods so manufacturing dwindles and declines till it fades awayA great gap then gets created when it comes to the standards of living in the population Work in rural areas becomes underrated and gets neglected in the process A culture of illegal activities spreads around And the concept of honorable jobs and the essence of work gets violated as a result of the temporary appeal of easy money and deception The tradesmen with their corruption and new money invest their money building towers and sky scrapers that give false hope and indication of development and progress The social approach after failure of applying social theories of the first world our own humanitarian science surfaced one in align with the context of Third World CountriesSome of the issues noticed when approaching backwardness from a social perspective The sudden population explosion in third world countries after the Second World War Decline in the percentage of infants’ deaths because of eliminating most of the diseases and viruses that used to attack them also availability and affordable prices for medicine Young age for women marriage that gives her chance to bear and kids Illiteracy lack of cleanliness hygiene and health care systems and malnutrition A culture and acceptance of nepotism and illegal activities instead of setting a standard for work ethics and efficiency All that results in a huge and a serious gap between the rising numbers of population and the resources available to pass around Traditions and customs rule instead of laws Passing around of sciences and studies from the past is so passive and uncreative Definition of one’s worth and social rank is based on his birth circumstances and family situation Regimes and governments of dictatorial nature with no trace of democracy These regimes serve and benefit few elites and at the top of it all there’s a body of dictatorial police and army We get to the conclusion that the social economic and artificial approach all agrees that the essence and core of backwardness is corruption and authoritarianism leading to obedience oppression and submission If the essence of backwardness on a macro level is economic and social dispossession and dependency then on a micro and personal level it’s a psychological dispossessionThe reality of the backward human being could be divided into three phases The phase of oppression and obedience Spans over a long period of time The power of corruption is at its peak and so is obedience and submission The most significant features of this phase The backward person despises himself and is ashamed of his very existence Thinks of injustices and cruelty of nature as a deserved punishment and conseuence for his inadeuacy and passiveness He becomes and ally for the dominant and authoritative in his war against his own existence and voice Suicidal tendencies either symbolic or real ones being cruel and exhausting oneself beyond comprehension and sanity getting into accidents He justifies it all as punishment for a made up or unknown sin or offence Underlying contempt and despising others because they reflect his existential crisis and mirror his shame Cowardice and attempts of vengeance on the down low like laziness and passiveness sabotage and vandalism or symbolically by making jokes and poking fun This creates a contradiction outward submission and inward contempt and hatred Poking fun of the oppressor becomes a value in itself an indication of wit and sophisticationAll of the above create complexes in the backward human being Inferiority complex There are embedded feelings of helplessness People give up so easily and there’s no go getter attitude and a spirit of initiative There’s always this sense of passiveness and pointless waiting and hoping Zero confidence and self esteem All that is new and out of the comfort zone threatens hisher very existence and safety This complex makes people enemies of democracy and liberty Democracy that essentially stems from the strong and genuine belief in humanity and its creative force and energy Shame Complex Backward individual is ashamed of himself and his life Covering things up is his main and most important obsession He holds on strongly to superficial stuff and appearances that hide the fact of his inner misery He’s continuously living his life as a test that he has to ace and a threat to his innermost scandalous shameful secrets The oppressed man with this complex projects this shame on the woman The woman “the embodiment of weakness and fragility and shortcomings” according to his mentality Because of this projection he believes that his honor and respect threatens her and her behavior Even governments are controlled by this shame complex and are threatened all the time They fear scandals and being ratted out having all their corruption and deals to get exposed and unmasked to the public They suffer from the inferiority complex as well towards foreigners and colonists So while the man preys on the woman to work out his insecurities and shame governments and authorities prey on the weak citizens Permanence Disorder The term “Permanence” means that time is not a series or seuences of incidents beginning with the past then the present and eventually the future It’s not this one way rigid linear direction Past present and future create these three dimensions of Permanence Each two of them affecting and depending on the other So the misery and painful memories of the past affect the present time and how we perceive it and makes it a very hard experience and the future a concern Happiness of the present have us optimistic about our future and unburdens us of the past and its weight and pressure Hopes that the future holds subdue the stress of the present and relieve us from past’s weariness The suffering of the backward person makes the hurt and ache of the past is exaggerated suffering in the present is worsened and the future looks bleak and unpromising Heshe becomes irrational intense high strung and unreasonable in his reactions Running away from reality and life by practices and distractions drugs dhikr zar anticipating luck Etc Listening to sad and tragic songs that mirror the oppressed society and disappointments The torture and suffering of love is nothing but a symbol and cover up of deep unresolved issues and existential crisis that get projected on love Phase of oppression At this point the individual is psychologically unstable and damaged He’s boiling from the inside and so hostile Hostility and hatred that have been unbelievably suppressed now starting to escape this suppression and fight back It’s not uite enough to only blame oneself any so he needs to condemn and blames others Towards authorities the hostility is mostly verbal symbolic and figurative speech all forms of expression that don’t involve frank and honest confrontation The slightest of arguments and conflicts could take a tremendous turn and gets blown out of proportion and ends up with disastrous results Phase of rebellion and confrontation Armed violence is the only way in this phase So that the backward individuals avenge themselves and get rid of the all kinds of complexes that colonies and authorities implanted Weapons become the only value worth believing in And with it comes liberty and freedom And the worth of real hard work and strategic thinking and planning withers away on the face of violence and death This power and control over weapons is not for all There’s a minority and chosen ones that get this power The others then identify themselves and soak in the ideologies and believe of those powerful few And so they become empowered by that Instead of inferiority complex we now have superiority complex Instead of surrendering we notice Tyranny and in the place of nothingness we now face entitlement There’s a strong sense of self indulgence as if the whole world has to stand on one foot or reorganize itself according to one’s situation Loud behavior and conduct hue cry uproar and haste Irrational and unjustified happiness and optimism about the future that is exaggerated and not supported with substantial tangible evidence This stage and phase could hinder long term plans for liberty freedom and independence There’s also the threat of switching roles So that the one with power repeats the vicious cycle and get violent and controlling towards the people they’re in charge of Acting with the same mentality of the old oppressorThe Backward Mentality Lack of methodical thinking and intellect Tendency towards being uptight and strict to run away from failures Prejudice in judgments and opinions Chaos randomness and confusion are the theme in dealing with reality and life This chaotic way of thinking is not exclusive for the illiterate; even the elite and literate have it The backward individual is forever stuck at the level of first impressions and naive superficial observations Failure in diving in deep into details comparing those details and points and demonstrating all aspects and angles of the matter at hand It’s either with or against There’s no grey or looking at both sides of something to fully understand and estimate the big picture Lack of perseverance Long term plans are almost impossible There’s no capacity to endure long hard work on one project So it’s hard to become a dedicated researcher “Technology could help in the department and change the mentality and unconscious thinking of the backward individual” says “Nadeem Elbaitar” The machine and technology forces emotional detachments focuses on rationality logic arrangement and accuracy The high standard of production and productivity set a prime example and put worth to the value of efficiency and work that guide the mind and attitude of the individuals The high standard of consumption on the other hand creates a human model focused and obsessed about showing off and appearances The essence and core of the backward mentality in the Arab countries are 1 The standard and uality of Education2 Oppression and dominationThe standard and uality of Education There’s no doubt that illiteracy all around in the developing countries has to do with the dominant non scientific and uneducated mentality that are controlled by superstitions and myths Tradition and superstitions still dwell in the depths of Arabs’ psyches; even the well educated ones with prestigious degrees are not spared uality of education round here doesn’t build and integrated characters and personalities There’s this sense of ambivalence and duplicity in the personality of the backward beings when it comes to the role of education and its application in real life situations In everyday incidents and situations we observe these traditions and superstitious believes And in professional and scientific occasions and settings it almost feels like a different person

  3. Sara AlBloushi Sara AlBloushi says:

    More than amazing every one should read it

  4. Safa Magdy Safa Magdy says:

    everyone should read this book

  5. Haneen Haneen says:

    Education in the retarded socially mind is nothing than an outer soft shield which could fall if this mind has been shaked science for those people is like a coat they wear when they read a book or get into a laboratory or when they give a lecture and take it off throughout the remaining time

  6. Yusra Yusra says:

    This review is to say that the book got 45 stars not 4 I want the hard copy

  7. Ahmed Faid Ahmed Faid says:

    Everyone should read it

  8. Mohamed Kamal Diab Mohamed Kamal Diab says:

    A very good book to understand the people in Arab countries

  9. Mostafa Mostafa says:

    Great booknot done reading it yethad an initial hostility not uite sure why toward this booksoon turning to admiration I am hooked literally to the subject matter One intriguing point of discussion is the duality of intellect vs intuition The book valid point is that people of 3rd world lack intellectual practices replace them with intuition and mythology I wish to add that once we establish these necessary intellectual practices as a norm in our societies A huge needed leap we would have a major advantage over the west which is stuck there The beyond intellect phase is a advanced form of human existence and the west has no prayer with the Orient there

  10. BUDOOR BUDOOR says:


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التخلف الاجتماعي: مدخل إلى سيكولوجية الإنسان المقهور [Ebook] ➨ التخلف الاجتماعي: مدخل إلى سيكولوجية الإنسان المقهور By مصطفى حجازي – Liversite.co.uk إن تجاهل كون التخلف على المستوى الإنساني کنمط وجود مميز، له دینامیاته النفسية والعقلية والعلائقية النوعية، أ إن تجاهل كون التخلف على المستوى الإنساني مدخل إلى Epub Ü کنمط وجود مميز، له دینامیاته النفسية والعقلية والعلائقية النوعية، أوقع دارسي التخلف وعلماء التنمية، ومن ورائهم القادة السياسيين الذين يقررون عملیات التغيير الاجتماعي، في مأزق أدت إلى هدر الكثير من الجهد والوقت والإمكانات المادية، بشكل اتخذ طابع التبذير الذي لا يمكن التخلف الاجتماعي: PDF/EPUB or للمجتمع المتخلف، ذي الأعباء الثقال، أن يسمح لنفسه به انطلق هؤلاء جميعا في مشاريع تنموية طنانة، ذات بريق ووجاهة، قائمة على دراسات ومخططات جزئية، لم تتجاوز السطح معظم الأحيان، كي تنفذ إلى دينامية البنية المتخلفة من ناحية ، أو إلى التكوين النفسي والذهني للإنسان المتخلف الذي أريد تطويره من الاجتماعي: مدخل إلى MOBI · ناحية ثانية وضعت خطط مستوردة عن نماذج طبقت ونجحت في بلدان صناعية، ولكن مسيرة هذه الخطط لم تخط بعيدة، فلقد أخففت التجارب المستوردة، والمشاريع الملصقة من الخارج، كما فشلت المشاريع ذات الطابع الدعائي الاستعراضي في تحريك بنية المجتمع ككل، وفي الارتقاء بإنسان ذلك المجتمعذلك لأن إنسان هذه المجتمعات لم الاجتماعي: مدخل إلى سيكولوجية الإنسان PDF \ ينظر إليه باعتباره عنصرة أساسية ومحورية في أي خطة تنموية التنمية، مهما كان میدانها، ثمن تغير الإنسان ونظرته إلى الأمور في المقام الأول لا بد إذا من وضع الأمور في إطارها البشري الصحيح، وأخذ خصائص الفئة السكانية التي يراد تطوير نمط حياتها بعين الاعتبار ولا بد بالتالي من دراسة هذه الخصائص ومعرفة بنيتها ودينامينها، وهو ما ترومه هذه المحاولة، بما قد تحمل من ثغرات، تطمح إلى فتح الطريق أمام أبحاث نفسية ميدانية ، تحاول فهم الإنسان المتخلف بنوعيته وخصوصية وضعه، وبشكل حي وواقعي، لتكون مرتكزات علم نفس التخلف.